Dyslipidaemia Study in Diabetes: Study description    

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Title: Presenting Data Using Graphs and Summary Statistics and Quantifying Uncertainty in Study Findings

 

 Dyslipidaemia Study in Diabetes: Study description

 

A cross sectional study was conducted on 366 diabetic patients to assess the lipid profile and to investigate possible factors contributing to the development of dyslipidemia as well as hemoglobin A1c (a measure of sugar control for diabetic patients). The patients were recruited from a specialized diabetic hospital outpatient department. All study participants provided a blood sample and completed a lifestyle and demographic questionnaire.

 

The objective of the study was to find factor(s) that may relate to the risk of developing dyslipidemia in diabetic patients. Along with the demographic information and physical measurements, hematological measurements were reported in continuous scale. For analysis purposes most of the continuous variables were transformed into grouped data. However, original continuous variables were also kept in the data set. The short and long names of the variables and corresponding statistical codes are presented in the following table, Table 1.

Table 1: Variable description of the Dyslipidaemia study

 

Variable Variable Label Value label
ID ID Number N/A
Age Age in years N/A
Age_gr Age group 1: < 40 years; 2: 40 – 49 years; 3: 50 – 59

years and 4: >= 60 years

Gender Gender 1: Male , 2: Female
Occupation Occupation type 1: Sedentary worker; 2: Moderate worker

and 3: Heavy physical worker

Physical_activity Physical activity level 0: Sufficient PA and 1: Insufficient PA
Weight Weight in Kg N/A
Height Height in meter N/A
BMI BMI in Kg/m2 N/A
BMI_gr BMI Group 0: Normal; 1: Overweight and

2: Obese

BP_diastolic Diastolic BP N/A
BP_systolic Systolic BP N/A
HTN Hypertension 0: Normotensive and 1: Hypertensive
Duration_diabetes Duration of Diabetes N/A
Duration_diabetes_gr Duration of Diabetes Group 1: < 5 years; 2: 5 – < 10 years and

3: > = 10 years

HbA1c HbA1c N/A
HbA1c_gr HbA1c group 0: <7 Controlled and 1: >=7 Uncontrolled
Insulin Takes insulin 0: No and 1: Yes
Duration_insulin Duration of insulin (years) N/A
TC Total Cholesterol N/A
TC_gr Total Cholesterol group 0: < 200 and 1: ≥ 200
TG Triglyceride N/A
TG_gr Triglyceride group 0: < 150 and 1: ≥ 150
HDL HDL Cholesterol N/A
HDL_gr HDL Cholesterol group 0: Normal and 1: Low
LDL LDL Cholesterol N/A
LDL_gr LDL Cholesterol group 0: < 100 and 1: ≥ 100
Creatinine Serum Creatinine N/A
Creatinine_gr Serum Creatinine 0: < 1.5 and 1: ≥ 1.5
TC_HDL TC_HDL ratio N/A
LDL_HDL LDL_HDL ratio N/A
Dyslipidaemia Dyslipidaemia 0: No dyslipidaemia and 1: Yes

dyslipidaemia

 

 Questions 1-4 are related to the “Dyslipidemia Data”.

 

Question 1   Identify each of the first 15 variables (marked bold) in the above table either as nominal, ordinal, discrete or continuous.

 

Hint: Present your answer in a table by listing the variables in the first column, variable label in the 2nd column, value label in the 3rd column and classification of the variables in the 4th column.

 

Variable Variable Label Value label Classification of Variable
ID ID Number N/A N/A
Age Age in years N/A Continuous
Age_gr Age group 1: < 40 years; 2: 40 – 49 years; 3: 50 – 59

years and 4: >= 60 years

Ordinal
Gender Gender 1: Male, 2: Female Nominal
Occupation Occupation type 1: Sedentary worker; 2: Moderate worker

and 3: Heavy physical worker

Ordinal
Physical_activity Physical activity level 0: Sufficient PA and 1: Insufficient PA Nominal
Weight Weight in Kg N/A Continuous
Height Height in meter N/A Continuous
BMI BMI in Kg/m2 N/A Continuous
BMI_gr BMI Group 0: Normal; 1: Overweight and

2: Obese

Ordinal
BP_diastolic Diastolic BP N/A Continuous
BP_systolic Systolic BP N/A Continuous
HTN Hypertension 0: Normotensive and 1: Hypertensive Nominal
Duration_diabetes Duration of Diabetes N/A Continuous
Duration_diabetes_gr Duration of Diabetes Group 1: < 5 years; 2: 5 – < 10 years and

3: > = 10 years

Ordinal
HbA1c HbA1c N/A Continuous

 

Question 2 : Fill up the following table using appropriate summary statistics for each of the variables listed in the first column. Discuss whether dyslipidaemia is related to HbA1c, diastolic BP, physical activity level and patients’ age group. Note: outcome variable is dyslipidaemia

 

Variable Dyslipidaemia
Yes No
HbA1c Median 80 IQR 15 Median 80 IQR 13
BP diastolic Mean 81.84 SD 11.100 Mean 77.02 SD 10.601
Physical Activity level:    
Sufficient 45.3% 54.4%
Insufficient 54.7% 45.6%
Age group:    
< 40 yrs. 81% 19%
40 – 49 yrs. 87.4% 12.6%
50 – 59 yrs. 82.2% 17.8%
≥ 60 yrs. 89.7% 10.3%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 3  : Graphically determine the relationship between dyslipidaemia and each of the following variables: duration of diabetes group, BMI group and occupation type. Present each of the above variables on an appropriate graph and discuss the results followed by a conclusion. Note: outcome variable is dyslipidaemia

 

 

 

 

Question 4 : Graphically determine the relationship between HbA1c and each of the following variables: occupation type, duration of diabetes group and BMI group. Present each of the above variables on an appropriate graph and discuss the results followed by a conclusion. Note: outcome variable is HbA1c

 

 

 

 

Question 5 : For the following questions show the detailed calculations, most marks will be allocated for correct calculations.

 

  • [4 marks] The lifetime of a mechanical aortic valve is normally distributed with a mean life of 30 years and a standard deviation of 2 years. Find the chances that a randomly selected patient who had an aortic valve replacement will not be required to replace his/her valve in the next 32 years.

 

  • [6 marks] At a hospital, the ages of all new employees hired during the last 5 years are normally distributed. Within this curve, 95% of the ages, centered about the mean, are between 6 and

37.4 years. Find the mean age and the standard deviation of the data.

 

  • [6 marks] Given that the scores on a medical test follow a normal distribution with a mean of 460 and a standard deviation of 100. If all students in a class of 41 attend the test what is the probability that the given class will obtain a mean score of above 590?

 

 

Question 6 : Consider that the population distribution for length of survival time after diagnosis with a lung cancer is right skewed. What will be the shape of the sampling distribution for the sample mean length of survival in a random sample of 2500 lung cancer patients from this population? Justify your answer. Hint: only statement of the “Central Limit Theorem” would not be considered as a complete answer.

 

 

Question 7  : State the learning outcomes of Modules 1-3 and describe how this assessment is aligned with these learning outcomes (maximum of 150 words, excluded from the total word count of this assessment).

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